This assignment is based on the learning objectives and concepts learnt in the first 3 modules There is a total of 58 marks and this assignment will contribute 20% towards the total assessment for this subject. Your assignment should be typed in this document! Leave the question as is don’t erase it from the document Leave adequate space between questions. Don’t erase quotation marks I used – this is done to reduce similarities as you all answer the same questions.
PUBH7016 Introduction To Epidemiology Assignment
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“In 2012 a group of 4,233 men and women aged 20 years were recruited from the general population and assessed for HIV virus. 288 participants were found to have HIV when tested at baseline. Participants who did not test positive for HIV in 2012 were followed-up and assessed again after 4 years of follow-up (only those who previously had tested negative for HIV were tested again at follow-up). A further 99 cases of HIV were identified during this 4 year period either diagnosed during the interim or diagnosed during the study assessment. (It is assumed that once participants contract HIV they remain HIV positive without recovery”
a) “What was the prevalence of HIV among study participants in 2012?”
(b) “What was the prevalence of HIV among study participants after 4 years of follow-up? Assume no loss to follow-up”.
(c) “What was the cumulative incidence of HIV among study participants over the study period?”
(d) “Calculate the total number of person-years at risk during the 4 year period. (Assume that HIV was acquired randomly during the 4 year period. That is those who acquired HIV were at risk for half the time of those who did not acquire HIV”.
(e) “What was the incident rate of HIV among participants for the 4 years”.
(f) “Assuming that the incidence rate of HIV remains constant, what should happen to the prevalence of HIV in this cohort over time?”
“Data from HealthStats NSW (2015) are provided below. Use these data to answer the following questions”.
a) “Calculate all-cause mortality rate?”
(b) “Calculate diabetes-specific mortality rate”
(c) Calculate diabetes case fatality rate ?
“The following table presents hypothetical data of the incidence of breast cancer in women in two states (light grey City A- dark grey City B”
(a) “Calculate the crude rates of breast cancer per 100,000 women in each city. Compare the results.”
(b) “Calculate the direct standardised incidence rates of breast cancer for women living in city A and in city B according to the world standard population (given in the last column). Compare the two results and interpret your findings.”
(c) “Based on the data you have just calculated would you say that age structure can explain the differences between the two cities in crude breast cancer? Justify”
PUBH7016 Introduction To Epidemiology Assignment
A study was conducted on dietary anti-oxidant intake Vitamin A and Vitamin E and colon cancer 120,000 people aged 20-70 years were selected at random from the total population of Melbourne in 1987 and invited to join the study 110,700 of those invited agreed to participate At the start of the study participants filled the baseline questionnaire including social demographic characteristics height weight BMI body mass index dietary intake and other health risk factors including smoking exercise and stress Every two years thereafter the authors re-sent the same questionnaire. At the end of the study which was 1997 10 years from baseline researchers were still in contact with 64% of the study population and still collecting data from them. Outcome data cancer episode and site were available for 97% of the original study population from the Victorian Cancer Registry.
(a) What is the study design the research question the main exposure and the main outcome (no more than 50 words)?
(b) “What are the key features that led you to this choice”
(c) “Can the same research question be studied in randomised controlled trial?Justify”
Investigators wishes to examine if delaying the age of having first child is associated with higher incidence of breast cancer in young women 18-45 years old.They considered age greater than 35 years for first child as a delay and age 35 or below as normal age for having first child.
a) “Propose an epidemiological study design to explore this question and justify use bullet points why you chose this design” (no more than 40 words ?
b) Assuming you are one of the investigators please provide a short description about the participants in the study what data you will need to collect to answer your research question and at which time point you collect this data
c) “What other study design you can consider for this research question and explain why you chose it”
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